Insaniyat N° 75-76| 2017| Sur les réformes en Algérie| p. 193-196| Texte intégral


Zakaria SMAHI and Khadidja REMAOUN: Agrarian reforms: what land-use impacts by farming?

Reform in any area always has different implications. In agriculture, the most visible implications are those which affect organizing and structuring the rural area. One of the main indicators or motors of this is the land use by the various farming speculations that practiced there as well as the transformations of the wooded estate (forests and their forms of degradation or restoration). This work (some results of which were acquired as part of a research project) approaches the problematic of the impact of the various agrarian reforms carried out in Algeria since its independence in 1962 on the practiced cultures (types and spatial extension). The development of four communes, object of this work, depicts similarities but also speaking differences. Questions then can arise in relation to final decision-making: what involvement do local actors show compared to that of “officials”? Or do other factors intervene? If yes, which ones?

Keywords: Reforms - agriculture - vineyard - market gardening - arboriculture.


Rosa MAHDJOUB: Development of preschool coverage: Reflections on the fundamental issues of a new policy

In Algeria, preschool education was not more successful than primary school, but since education reform of 2002, we witness a sound development in the sector. Indeed, the law of orientation of January 2008, following this reform, a great importance was accorded to early childhood care. Once preschool is mentioned, many have tendency to think straightforward that the Ministry of National Education is the sole provider of this service and that this case remains the privilege of this department. Actually, several formulas are available to provide education of the kind. Assuming responsibility for these different orders of diversities caused a contrasting collection in the offered services, although they all have the common generic label “childhood education”. In these situations, when preschool services are claimed to be developed, the arisen question is: what services will be concerned? What are the fundamental elements of the new preschool policy in Algeria?

Keywords: Algeria - preschool - coverage - quantity - quality - effectiveness.


Fatima NEKKAL: Educational reforms in Algeria did they contribute to the formation of human capital?

In an attempt to explain the formation of "human capital", the aim of this article is to identify educational reforms in Algeria and evaluate their impact on the formation of human capital. Various researches on the subject led us to determine the educational indicators that can generate human capital.

For this, we are interested in the formation of general human capital because it is considered as source of specific capital at the level of the company but also as generator of economic growth.

We believe, at the present time, that the education system in Algeria has enabled the formation of human capital but of which "all qualifications, experiences accumulated by an individual and which determine, in part, his ability to work or produce for himself or for others", seem insufficient in the professional environment of the employed.

Keywords: Educational reforms - education indicators - educational effectiveness - human capital - education system - Algeria.


Aïcha BENAMAR: Schooling Reform of 2002: between adoption and denial

The issue of the 2002 schooling reform stands for a true challenge for policy makers and different actors of the education system. Indeed, if research proved that school is mostly difficult to reform from pedagogical viewpoint, some authors keep questioning on the outcome of changes, planned on a large scale and of a prescriptive way mainly for teachers. The major questions raised in this contribution are: how was this reform of 2002 perceived, and what impression had it caused to the performances and teaching practices?

Keywords: reform - change - quality - education system - performances - practices - Algeria.


Boulanouar YOUSFI: Project teaching in primary fifth year: Teacher Training and Classroom Practices. (Field investigation)

The reform of the Algerian education system, implemented since 2003, adopted a new tendency towards an eclecticism that proves active. This consists of three methodological approaches including the project-based teaching as a part. The (co) construction of knowledge, in this process, is developed through the (co) achievement of a project issuing in a final product. The process leading to this product allows pupils to develop, both collectively and individually, knowledge and skills in action. In this article, we raised some questions on the reality of this active method in the 5th year in Algeria through a questionnaire survey. Our objective is to know how the project teaching is performed in classes. The project concerned by this study is the project n ° 02 entitled: "read and write a story".

Keywords: FLE didactic - project-based teaching - active pupil - concrete product - Algeria.


Mohamed MILIANIThe LMD reform: an issue of implementation

The LMD (License-Master- Doctorate) system in its concept displays in a systemic way the resolution of the issue of teaching in Higher Education establishments. Unlikely, if its progressive integration provided satisfaction to those who feared that reform, it mainly endured at micro-level, mainly the departments and faculties, an important informational deficit but also in the early years a lack of preparation in pedagogy and teaching engineering.
The inauguration of the reform through the conception of more or less appropriate curricula did not fully respond to the social demand for good Higher Education. It is, therefore, at the level of the implementation of the system that arise real difficulties due mostly to an informational deficit and an embryonic teacher training. Facing the implementation of the reform, the perceptions of the stakeholders, mainly students and teachers, are between undocumented reactions and secondary concerns.

Keywords: Reform - implementation - LMD - pedagogy - professionalization - autonomy - training - Algeria.

Youcef ABBOU and Brahim BRAHAMIA: Expansion
of preschool coverage; reflections on the structural elements of a new policy

All over the world, health expenditures continue to grow more rapidly than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For this purpose, many strategies to contain costs have been tried in recent years by policymakers.

The different modes of regulation that exist can take several forms: accounting control, medicalized control and market control.

Accounting control is a type of budgetary containment which is characterized by a priori definition of lump budget or by limiting health care supply through a fixed numbers “numerus clausus” as well as through the medical map. This type of cost-containment can be made possible by price-setting of health care services and also by making more responsible the assured through the ceiling prices and the co-payments (user fees).

Medicalized control refers to the concept of appropriate care: the benefit-cost ratio and medical efficacy are the only criteria considered suitable to lower health costs. Medical guiding principle, the Medical guidelines and medical record are the most important means that allow attaining appropriate care at lower cost.

The control by the market can be reached through health insurers or health care providers. According to the proponents of liberalism, the market is the best solution that provides optimal allocation of resources. It fosters competition and moderates price increase.

This article focuses on the regulation tools of health expenditure used in Algeria to control or contain the evolution of these outgoings. The search for new funding sources may also be a key element to contain the growth of health expenses.

Keywordsaccounting control, medicalized control, control by the market, ceiling prices, co-payments, lump budget, Social security, Algeria.

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